the behaviourist theory

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the behaviourist theory

The behaviourist theory
Utsunomiya University, Japan
Behaviorist learning theory is a psychology‐grounded pedagogical line of thought, based on the idea that behavior can be researched scientifically without consideration of cognitive states. The primary hypothesis is that learning is influenced solely by physical variables such as environmental or material reinforcement. By dismissing the influence of mental variables, behaviorist theories propose that free will is an illusion and that responses can be determined and conditioned. Key figures essential to the development of these theories include Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner.

Learning outcomes as a concept has encountered a revival since the beginning of the Bologna process in 1999. The concept itself has a longer history with its roots in the behaviourist tradition of the 1960s. The goal of this review is to study how the historical roots of learning outcomes are noted in current research articles since the launch of the Bologna process and whether the concept of learning outcomes is used critically or uncritically. The review of 90 articles shows that the behaviourist tradition is still evident in the 21st century research with 29% of the articles directly and 11% indirectly referring uncritically to the respective publications or to the behaviourist epistemology. Only a minority of the articles, i.e. 8%, was found to be critical towards the behaviourist meaning of learning outcomes.
Only 8% of the articles were critical towards the behaviourist tradition.

The behaviourist theory
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References:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1747938X17300283
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/behaviorist
http://link.springer.com/10.1007%2F978-1-4419-1698-3_143