skinner positive reinforcement

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skinner positive reinforcement

Skinner positive reinforcement
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There are many theories founded by psychologists and educators that attempt to explain how people learn. A prevalent theory that has been utilized and researched for over 80 years is operant conditioning. Originated by B. F. Skinner in the 1930s, operant conditioning attempts to define how different types of reinforcers and punishments can strengthen and weaken behaviors.
Positive reinforcement involves the increase in the frequency of a behavior as a result of the presentation of a stimulus.

Prior to the work of Skinner, instrumental learning was typically studied using a maze or a puzzle box. Learning in these settings is better suited to examiningdiscrete trials or episodes of behavior, instead of the continuous stream of behavior. The Skinner Box is an experimental environment that is better suited to examine the more natural flow of behavior. (The Skinner Box is also referred to as an operant conditioning chamber.)
A Skinner Box is a often small chamber that is used to conduct operant conditioning research with animals. Within the chamber, there is usually a lever (for rats) or a key (for pigeons) that an individual animal can operate to obtain a food or water within the chamber as a reinforcer. The chamber is connected to electronic equipment that records the animal’s lever pressing or key pecking, thus allowing for the precise quantification of behavior.

References:

http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-0-387-79061-9_2196
http://psychology.uiowa.edu/comparative-cognition-laboratory/glossary/skinner-box
http://www.notesale.co.uk/more-info/187313/TDA34-2.1-Explain-the-benefits-of-actively-promoting-positive-aspects-of-behaviour.